These type of clauses explain the reasons for what happens in the main clause. Example: He bought a new home because he got a better job.. Take a look at the chart below to study the various usages of different expressions of cause and effect. Note that all of these expressions are synonyms of ‘because’.
When an adverb clause begins the sentence use a comma to separate the two clauses. Example: Because he had to work late, we had dinner after nine o’clock.. When the adverb clause finishes the sentence there is no need for a comma. Example: We had dinner after nine o’clock because he had to work late.
For more information about how to use these words click on the link for an explanation of the usage.
Adverb Clauses of Cause and Effect
- They received a high mark on their exam because they had studied hard.
- I’m studying hard because I want to pass my exam.
- He works a lot of overtime because his rent is so expensive
Notice how because can be used with a variety of tenses based on the time relationship between the two clauses.
- Since he loves music so much, he decided to go to a conservatory.
- They had to leave early since their train left at 8.30.
‘Since’ means the same as because. ‘Since’ tends to be used in more informal spoken English. Important note: “Since” when used as a conjunction is typically used to refer to a period of time, while “because” implies a cause or reason.
As long as
- As long as you have the time, why don’t you come for dinner?
‘As long as’ means the same as because. ‘As long as’ tends to be used in more informal spoken English.
- As the test is difficult, you had better get some sleep.
‘As’ means the same as because. ‘As’ tends to be used in more formal, written English.
- Inasmuch as the students had succesfully completed their exams, their parents rewarded their efforts by giving them a trip to Paris.
‘Inasmuch as’ means the same as because. ‘Inasmuch as’ is used in very formal, written English.
Due to the fact that
- We will be staying for an extra week due to the fact that we haven not yet finished.
‘Due to the fact that’ means the same as because. ‘Due to the fact that’ is generally used in very formal, written English.